Compilation of Ancient Romanian Folk Culture Traditions & Animism of Shamanism shares by Phoenix of Elder Mountain – This article is about the Romanian traditions of folklore rituals and shamanic connections with the Animism of the Wolf Clan people. But can animism can be applied to any tradition around the world, because the animism soul is cross culture of an older time before paganism or goddess eras. We do not get to chose our animism soul(s), its like dna of our physical body, its already predisposition at birth. The eternal soul in its light and shadow is eternal, both human form and animism for, from our own ancient souls. Even sorcerers who are all puff and smoke in their projection of an animal, is no match for those shamans who ‘are’ the wild animal soul (devoid of any human, its personality or its human soul) in their shape shifting.
I divided this article to a simple basic history of the ancient wolf people called the Dacian Tribes; The realm of shape-shifters of animism and its past life karmic loss; Wolves who turn into werewolves and why; and one of my shamanic ceremony similar to the folklore; and lastly, a dream of wolf by a maiden and youth who I know and their story with my intervention as a dreamer (shaman).
Romania, as I have discovered, never lost its connection with nature and especially to its forests, its “forest woman spirits,” to its wolf, bear and other inhabitants that populate the pantheon governing early animistic beliefs. Villagers, past and present-still, remain faithful to such symbols knowing that “She” protects and preserves the fertility and creation of all those who inhabit this cosmic space. The magic of life generated by these great forests resonates in the passages shared with us in the “Folk Almanac.”As we read them, they become instantly recognizable, and fascinating, as an unending umbilical cord stretching back into Neolithic or even Paleolithic times.
Romania has two specific ancient animal traditions that are still celebrated in Winter Rituals, one is the Wolf and the other the Bear. The more ancient Dacian tribes, the Kingdom of Dacia was a territory encompassing today’s Romania and the lands adjacent to it. The Dacians were one of Eastern Europe’s indigenous peoples who never left their inherited lands. Like most indigenous people including the white indigenous clans who were eradicated first, some small groups survived. The Dacia did not survive, but they showed a religious syncretism between the Wolf, the Dragon and the Serpent. Because they were indigenous and voiced their story traditions rather than written languages, little is know about them today. Fortunately, part of their history is written in stone.
The Wolf Clan Dacian people also called themselves “Wolves” and the legends says they were shape-shifters who changed from human into wolves (animism) and back again. They had an ancestral spirit wolf guardian, a big white wolf who in the end when war came, had to fight next to the Dacians when their capital Sarmizegetusa fell to the Romans. Rome was also a wolf clan as well, but the earlier Etruscans were not. Rome brought in a symbol of the more aggressive and war like wolf as a symbol. Dacians were a diligent people, who thrived in the lands in and around the Carpathian Mountains of what we now call Romania.
“Our Peasants will end in life after life, but men of Empires and Wars will end in death after death. Angels wear Joy, while Men wear Empire Clothing and will wear Mourning.” ~Romanian Petre Tuțea.
Modern Romania is a merging of two principalities named Wallachia and Moldova who were independent tribes and they joined as one in 1859. In 1877, Romania gained independence and four years later, Romania became a kingdom (constitutional monarchy) and enjoyed decades of stability and progress. The nation itself was only officially established in 1918 – the year that all three principalities, Wallachia, Moldova and Transylvania came together. In 1947, King Mihai I was ousted from power and what followed was half a century of communist rule and repression. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania parted with the communist past and in 2007 became a member of the European Union. Although Romania has always consisted of a large majority of their own ethnic Romanians, the ethnic minorities that settled over the centuries during the upheaval of changes of the 1800s, and they have all influenced the social, economic and ethnographic landscape. (http://www.folkwearsociety.com)
“Eternity was born in the Village” says one of the most famous quotes by Romanian philosopher and poet Lucian Blaga. In his poem “The Soul of the Village” he talks about the scenery of the Romanian village and its connection to the Romanian peasant, where “every thought is slower, and the heart beats more slowly, as if it beats not in your breast – but deep down somewhere in the earth”.
The feminine and female mythical connections and representations related to Dochia of Romania was their honoring of the Neolithic Mother Goddess who dies starting late Autumn and is then Reborn on Spring Equinox. In our Slavic traditions we called her Marzanna and Morena and she is in honor of this ancient tradition that is still performed today in a more simplified way. I do ceremony and ritual with Marzanna that starts on the Autumn equinox and she is done with shamanic ritual and then put on the lands at the Winter Solstice and then burned on the Spring Equinox for specific intention of my shamanic rites.
The Dochia is the old and powerful grandmother who is connected to the prehistory and primal earth. Beginning with Dochia’s Day, March 9th, the equinox of the old almanac and the female representations of divinity are grouped into their three generations (Triple Goddess): The Old Goddess (Grandmother) Dochia; Mother Goddesses: Mary the Virgin, the Woods Mother and the Caloian’s Mother; and Maiden Goddesses: Floriile, Sanzienele, Dragaicele, Lazaritele, Ielele.
The Wolves of Midwinter
Their are two Saint (modern traditions) associated with the older Pagan wolves, the first was the night of Saint Andrews is a legacy passed down from the Romanian ancestors, the Dacians, or wolf warriors as they were known given their battle symbol in the figure of the wolf headed dragon, a custom shrouded in mysticism. Old legends say that the wolves accompanied the warriors and that the one who was their leader watched over apostle Andrew through the wilderness of Dobrogea to the sacred Grandmother Cave that was offered to him as shelter.
The Wolves of Midwinter – Another legend of the winter traditions but much later than the Dracians is the peasant villager, specifically the Shepherds of Romanian. A folk almanac was compiled by Romanian writer Ion Ghinoiu and I will share below. I make a note, that the Serbians Peasant Villagers also are a wolf clan people, who also have a strong prehistory connected to the wolf clan as well that still remains in smaller rituals of villagers by the elder women, the men’s wolf ritual dance circle and the whole community, in a positive way of their relationship to their Midwinter Wolves.
by Vedan Kolod
In the darkness, in its very deep in the Taiga (forest), the Broad Taiga (forest) there’s an old Tree and under that tired old Tree, the mighty She-Wolf dreams a Dream.
She was the leader of her wolves’ pack, she was the wise Queen of the frost stunned Siberian Taiga. But her bones became weak when era’s had passed, and the death is flying above her head.
She-wolf is old and tired and wolves’ howls freeze in the air.
She can only dream a dream of her children running free.
The Wolves of Midwinter is a prehistory Shamanic relationship to nature through her animals and those of us who are old souls who carry the lineage of an animal, avian, insect (fairy) or oceanid soul which today are very underdeveloped because of our karma of past lives of destruction during the last three millenniums. These ways which were fully active before the Patriarch, which was then carried into ancient Paganism, and then into their last destruction of the Christianized influences. In some Slavic and Balkan traditions these were more of a confluence with paganism and Christianity which helped preserve the stories.
One of these mergings is the celebration called Sânpetru which falls around the third moon of winter (January 16-20) also called the Wolves of Saint Peter. The folk tradition tells us that the Wolves gather in packs at howling places where they start singing to call their great divinity (mother earth, then god, then saint) to distribute their share of prey to which they are entitled for a whole year.
This divine one arrives at midnight on a white horse and allots each wolf its prey: a lamb, a sheep, a deer, rabbit or a human. The wolves would spare no morsel of the shares promised. The story is told of a shepherd being curious to see how wolves meet their divinity. To find out he climbed up to a howling place in broad daylight, and hides himself among the branches of a high fir-tree. After the wolves had gathered and howled their calling, Saint Peter arrived on a white horse and quietly distributed the prey to each, but before the end of the meeting, a lame wolf came limping. Seeing him, Saint Peter barked at him: Since you didn’t come on time, you should eat that human over there, hiding in the fir-tree. Within a year’s time, the curious shepherd was eaten by the lame wolf. (19 Ghinoiu, 1997, p. 45).
Myth narrates a sacred history; it relates an event that took place in primordial time. In short, myths describe the various and sometimes dramatic breakthroughs of the sacred (or the “supernatural”) into the world. It is this sudden breakthrough of the sacred that really establishes the world and makes it what it is today. ~Romanian Mircea Eliade
Because Romanian culture like most older pagan and shamanic cultures didn’t live by sun calendars in pagan times, they lived diligently by the seasons and divided winter into several rituals and ceremonies and the “Wolves of Midwinter” was one of them. The Peasants say if they give back to the middle of winter, then winter will give back in the form of returning spring on time. Sânpetru believers say that the wolves were and still are an intricate part of the cycle of winter and a protection against evil.
In the Folk Almanac, the winter was a time of magic and charms; foreseeing the weather and how rich the new year will be. At this time, it is believed that the Heavens open and animals speak and that treasures burn. In reaction to this, purifying magical practices, hallowed waters (consecration by the priests) and rituals are predominant.
In North-Eastern Transylvania, they light fires (Ardeasaâ in Bucovina); spreading of bad-smelling substances; fumigating people, cattle and household. In their fight against evil spirits people got help from the “Midwinter Wolves” which they say are able to see the demons and chase them and tear them with their teeth. Frightened by the wolves, the devils jumped into waters and those men who were brave enough jumped after them.
Priests would throw their hallow waters with consecrated water and would throw in the cross driving away evil spirits is also horse running or horse chasing. Once every year in Midwinter the two rivals: the Wolf and the Horse, the former being master over winter and the latter being master of summer, fight for a common cause, namely driving away the demons and devils.
January 29 is the Winter “Phillipiesâ” (phillipies) are divinities who protect wolves and are celebrated by shepherds until the beginning of February. In the Folk Almanac the Winter Phillipies mark the end of a long mating period for wolves, having started about eighty days before in Autumn.
Ancient Romanian “Nedeia Wolves” (Night Wolves)
Similar to the Winter Ceremony Sânpetru, the Romanians say that in the middle of the night, the “Nedeia Wolves” around Midwinter or a month after Winter Solstice, the Night Wolves come to gather to get their share of food for the whole year. The deity or saint rides the white horse, bringing offerings to wolves. That when the wolf clans gather, they howl and gather usually at the crossroads:
“We are going to eat the sheep of this village” but tonight, at the midwinter, one important night of the year, guided by the divine Peasants leave good out for the wolves to honor them. Then the Priest (and what used to be the Grandmothers but were forbidden after Religion came), is that they put their sheep in the stables with belief that their animals will now be guarded by wolves all year long.
“The Romanian Book of the Dead, another landmark of spiritual culture of the Carpato-Danubian people, contains sacred texts initiating the soul of the dead into a mythical journey on the path separating this earthly world from the world beyond. These texts are sung by a women’s choir at particular places and at significant moments of the funeral ceremony. The messages are addressed to the dead, to the goddesses of destiny (Zorile) and to the surviving husband. The Goddess of Death appears in the shape of a bird of prey (the kite, the raven, the vulture) or as a goddess that looks human (the Old Fairy, the Virgin Mary, Mother Irodia).
The texts to the songs contain, one by one, providential guides (the wolf, fox, or otter), well intentioned customs, as personified means of orientation (the willow tree in bud, the apple tree in blossom), psychopomp characters (the horse, the stag) and finally, in the world beyond, the dead person’s relatives.”
One last note… because Ukraine is along the border of Romania, it too has wolf lore, but those are later Pagan era’s when the focus was only on men and male gods. In Ukraine the “white wolf” is connected to Lesovik, a Forest Spirit who was previously probably god of the forests and before that a shamanistic grandmother or female forest soul; this spirit is often called, among other names, “the wolf’s shepherd”. It’s important to note that the motif of a wolf chasing after the Moon exists in both Nordic and Slavic along with Romanian mythology. The ancient Nordic peoples believed that a wolf called Hati is chasing after the Moon, which he will devour when he finally catches up with it, creating thus a lunar eclipse.
Symbolically this means when the seasons change (eclipses), our moon, which is our soul, catches up with us at each solar and lunar eclipse if we do not do emotional work. For many, this has now accumulated for decades and thus our diseases come faster and are more and more serious.
Animism Part 1: The Fragmented, then Lost Souls of our Animism Rites
Animism is rare around on earth today and pretty much was shut down between the first century ce and the 13th century or the dark ages. It’s rare because people living today, accrued their real karma of their past lives during those centuries. It wasn’t because we fell asleep, although that is a part of it, our animism souls were destroyed by the constant suffering from rising war cults of the Patriarch (Religion, Military and Science.) Each war or wars we went through in our past lives accrued in losses, be it a victim or a soldier of fortune. The stresses, strains, loss of community and rape effected all indigenous whites, reds, black, yellow and brown peoples.
My focus is to always help others to understand that relearning of our relationship to our shamanistic purity and our karmic soul, its relationship to our emotional body (at both our instinct levels and our lack of boundaries) and their relationship to nature (non plant non drug shamanism). Our personal and our real past life karma binds these two parts of our soul inside of us, sometimes both (the emotional body and the soul astral body) are not even merged together and separate, which makes it even harder to heal. The animism and other souls we have which are not our human aspects – do not live in this world, they live in the dream worlds (energy fields across the veil from us) which is less than five inches away energetically and remain there in the first gate of the middle worlds of earth.
Animism is also a lifelong “sober” dedication. When we are young and pure, we may have a glimpse or shape shift a few times, but after 30 (first Saturn return) its a different story and most of that is lost as the gates to youth and childhood close). Many also have trauma in childhood and this too effects the animal souls destruction and loss. After the first saturn return, we enter adulthood and this is where karma and karmic purification of our next 30 years begins. Most people, even spiritual people live regular lives and are not in a constant state of crisis that occurs with karmic purification, or what people refer to as the dark night of the soul. One dark night can seem like ten years and in actual work, the crisis can last from ten to thirty years of the dark night for the devout spiritual persons journey.
Since the early 70s, many things have been superimposed onto shamanism that really is not a part of shamanism and animism. Even Plant shamanism is new on earth (only since the 1500s), but opinions of those who do them for ten or twenty years will try to convince you otherwise. Just try to stay sober when dealing with shamanic reality, that will pay of after fifty or sixty with better health.
Part 2: My Ritual Shamanic purification work with Animism
Wolves in nature have a hierarchy and a complex family and so do wolf clan people. Much of the issues that arise is complex family issues that need to be addressed and healed and takes a long time for such work to play out. I just completed a six month ceremony a few weeks ago on a local werewolf and aware of who it’s human is and he has a complex, very complex issue in relationships in regard to family. In animism, the soul of the animal, bird etc. can be possessed by the human karmic shadow astral body (demon) which would then turn a wolf into werewolf.
Because our shadow human body is in the underworld or free and roaming the dream planes, the mystical connections between our light or dark soul and our animal soul has an evolution that started long ago from the past and its past lives. That is the simple explanation.
I was surprised when I found this folk almanac today, that was a Romanian shamanic custom which I was doing without knowing a few weeks ago. That made my day and brought a smile to my face. The story of the werewolf of my shamanic work started six months ago, as I began to hunt a werewolf shadow soul after it attacked me on the full moon on the land. I did most of my shamanic work in that Gemini moon cycle six months ago and when the Sagittarian Moon arrived (its opposition) in late November, early December, I waited for the signs in order to complete this job. Of all the work I have done that is not collective, but individual, the werewolf soul is by far the most dangerous.
Having finished most of the work, the werewolf shadow soul of this human was reduced into a smaller size (the raccoon) through the slaying, which carried what was left of the demonic human soul drastically reduced. After that work, again the chickens were killed in the Sagittarian Moon cycle but not eaten.
I then did the final ceremony with my apprentice to call both the Bobcat clan in and the Coyote clan who live close to us, to assist me in catching this raccoon, and I also said some intentional prayers asking the Ancestral bobcat and coyote clan ancestors to help as well. We left the ancestors and the bobcats and coyotes, all five of the chickens which had been killed at “Midwinter” as an offering. And for them to guard the remaining goats and chickens and honoring them for helping us. It took three days – but finally the bobcats and coyotes came and took all the dead chickens.
Yesterday the dead raccoon was on the road and the werewolf roaming the dreaming or energetic fields (in-between the veils) is slain completely now and its human counterpart, remains unharmed and untouched. I have done this job with two Skinwalkers and they were easy compared with the werewolf, but Skinwalkers are Coyotes, not Wolves. Wolf is a whole different complex system of clan, family and the more root of animism because of its complex social system. Up until now, as long as this human person’s demon owned his werewolf – he receive no karma, only other people have. That time is over now in his lifetime and he continues his path as a human without the power of the werewolf.
Lycan was an ancient Greek human who can shape shift into their animal soul (animism), lycan is a dark term, meaning werewolf, one whose soul has gone into killing but not having paid the karma by suffering themselves.
In my shamanic work I live by the ancient Slavic traditions and do my work according to that practice over the years along with the cycles of the moon as timing and synchronicity of my work. I live by the 1/2 Year of Fire (spring and summer) and the 1/2 Year of Night (autumn and winter). Wolves have just returned here the Pacific Northwest, where I live, so eventually with their return, this shamanic origin ceremony will be preformed by me in the future if they come near the area, but I will still do it with coyotes and bobcats as well to honor them in Midwinter from here forth. To have a relationship with nature and its wildness is mandatory in the ways of respecting and honoring wolves, bears, coyotes etc.
Part 3: Two High School Friends have a Dream
A high school Maiden gave me permission to share her dream, I will call her Cloud, her mother is one of my eldest Apprentices so she as daughter, who was familiar in the last six years of this type of work with her mom, the dos and don’ts…
Her Dream: Cloud went to help her friend Dex confront a giant black and red eyed demon when they dreamed together one night. She saw Dex shifting into a wolf partially, mostly just facial features, eyes, cheeks ears etc. Cloud remembers being in a house that she knew her mother was at in the dream with Dex. A great room with a huge kitchen counter island.
Dex was holding Cloud in a protective way as they hid under the counter facing a huge wooden door. There were lots of younger children and Cloud was telling them everything was ok and sending them out to different areas of the house. But when they were all gone she told Dex “we may die you know” and he said “yeah I know”. Then Cloud saw the bolts and screws holding the wooden door securely to be pounded by the other side of something that wanted in. They started to twist their way out on their own and she told Dex, that the huge demon was trying to get in and get them.
So Dex moved next to the door and hunkered down like a wolf, and that’s when she saw his face start to shift… he took off his shirt and she saw that he had a tattoo on his upper middle back that was healing, like it was done recently, like an iron cross type of design and two smaller tattoos on each shoulder blade. Then the door blew off the hinges and it slammed into Cloud pushing her against the wall and she saw the demon walk in. It was about 9 or 10 feet tall, red skin like a frogs skin and black marks on its face with an elongated pointed chin and large slanted red eyes and huge protruding muscles like the hulk.
She heard Dex scream her name in shock when she got slammed into the wall by the door and hearing him she popped out of the dream. She woke up, and she got out of bed crying and went to the bathroom and saw she had a red marks on her forehead where the door hit her in the dream.
My notes: Dex is in High School and does drugs weekly, because of that, he was weak in the dreaming, and lost power. Cloud is his best friend and that is why she showed up in his dream. Dex of course has a “undeveloped” shamanic wolf soul that is still pure, but now with someones demon interfering, that shadow wants to possess that part of Dex soul and once that happens, there is no longer any soul wolf that belongs to Dex this lifetime or future lifetimes. He would become a werewolf.
If and when that happens if he doesn’t get sober, then he gains power, shadow and its demonic power and being so young, he won’t know the difference between good and evil, because the werewolf will entrap and control him in the dream realms that effects him and his relationships in this waking world.
The ego in this world then gains power until he or anyone meets someone like me… a dream shaman who is a dream huntress to slay the shadow and free the human. Dex has no power to fight this werewolf off. Regardless of what you hear out in the world, no one can fight a “real” demon until they have earned their second level soul animal or bird and can shape shift into it without any human soul interfering. Basically, Dex is about to loose his birth rite wolf, if he doesn’t stop doing drugs and I don’t find out who the werewolf is. In almost all cases, its someone in the family because wolf rules the archetypal structure of family.
My work of Dex and his Father George came next:
I completed this work recently (a few weeks after Dex coming to the near loss of his wolf soul) and I could do all the work in my dreams now that my 40 years of initiations as a death shaman (black shaman in Siberian terms) was completed. Dex’s father George, had a shadow past life demon who I call Blackie which I was following in the dreams over three nights to get more information. Blackie was gaining more and more power over George and George was encouraging his son Dex to do drugs, and stay out all night and party and it was getting worse and Dex was getting weaker and starting to lose part of his soul because of Blackie. He was also skipping school this past year and making it impossible for Cloud to have him in her space.
The werewolf of George, was still in a prison (not free to roam here or Dexs dream space) because Blackie the human demon of George had not possessed Dex yet, but was getting close and just across the threshold ready to come over and the transformation of loss was going to occur. This is the way it is all over the world, this tightly wound woundedness of lifetimes in the family of many people with gifts. Kids are not trained, parents don’t believe and then it all becomes lost or the kid is put on medication or worse, the teen or young adult starts self medicating with pot, alcohol or shamanic drugs.
I went into the dreaming again on the forth night, and slayed the demon Blackie and sent him back to the underworld. Both father and son were freed and their behaviors will improve immediately. The father pushed away some of the dark people he had put in his son’s life and the son began a friendship of respect with Clouds within two weeks.
As of today, everything shifted once Blackie was sent back to the underworld and locked down never to return this lifetime, and werewolf was then out of everyone’s dreams and was pushed even further into the realm of the past, into the past life where the fathers wolf was overtaken (most likely the middle ages and a few centuries before where most of wolf clan men damage was done). Werewolf had no power as long as the father’s demon Blackie was gone.
Forty years of initiation and training from real demonic activity makes my work very easy today, its done fast and complete.
“In life for those of the Wolf Clan
we feed the good wolf or we feed
the bad wolf’s demon human
who then frees the werewolf
to kill the wolf soul.”
Those who are wolf clan people like the Romanians or Serbians take it very seriously but the demonic scourge of all military on earth and their wars for any reasons – destroys this indigenous aspect of all of us who are willing to suffer and heal our karma.
The werewolf is one of the darkest and most powerful karmic animism souls to deal with and this destruction from wolf into werewolf began with the rising powers of the Kingdoms and Chiefs of earth from accumulated individual karma. It first began in the spread of the war cults such as Rome, Greece, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Jerusalem, North Africa (Egypt), Iraq or any country that built a religious-wars over the last 5,000 years. America was only the last to join the ranks.
“In ancient Arcadia, it certainly seems to be have been an important center of wolf worship. The story of king Lykaon leads us to Zeus Lykaios (another Arcadian “wolf god” who was Apollo Lykaios). Zeus Lykaios is the “Wolf Zeus”. In his honor, a religious festival called the Lykaia was celebrated on Mount Lykaion, the “wolf mountain.”
A historical example of where the wolf soul of a human being is destroyed and lost, and the werewolf becomes part of the man, and he returns much stronger and ten times more powerful…
“Regarding these sacrifices during the Lykaia, we are also having the incredible story of an Olympic boxing champion that Pausanias (6.8.2) tells us: “Damarchus, an Arcadian of Parrhasia, (…) who changed his shape into that of a wolf at the sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios, and how nine years after he became a man again”. He allegedly was turned into a wolf after he ate the flesh of a boy that was sacrificed to Zeus Lykaios by the Arcadians; Pausanias, writing in the Roman period, tell us that he “cannot believe what the romancers say about him [i.e. Damarchus]”.
Pliny’s Natural History (NH 8.34): “Agriopas (…) informs us that Demænetus, the Parrhasian, during a sacrifice of human victims, which the Arcadians were offering up to the Lycæan Jupiter, tasted the entrails of a boy who had been slaughtered; upon which he was turned into a wolf, but, ten years afterwards, was restored to his original shape and his calling of an athlete, and returned victorious in the pugilistic contests at the Olympic games.”
There were no werewolves in goddess and (early) pagan cultures, so there were no historical references to werewolves in the early Rome or Greek writings, only poetic historical accounts of the shifts of culture from shamanism and animism into paganism and religious kingdoms approximately around 2,500 bce until the 2nd century bce. History is based on written accounts and the soul history is based on ancient art and oral tradition and folklore. But shaman’s stories of the animism souls were not shared, and falls under the mysteries and rites of the shaman. Even I, outside the context of my apprentices do not share that much compared to what I experience everyday.
“Arcadia: The story of wolf transformation spread more widely and seems to have become quite popular during the Roman period. We learn about the entertaining story of Niceros who, during Trimalchios’ fantastic dinner party, told this story about his friend, a soldier, who transformed into a wolf in a graveyard: “He stripped himself and put all his clothes by the roadside. My heart was in my mouth, but I stood like a dead man. He made a ring of water round his clothes and suddenly turned into a wolf. Please do not think I am joking; I would not lie about this for any fortune in the world. But as I was saying, after he had turned into a wolf, he began to howl, and ran off into the woods. At first I hardly knew where I was, then I went up to take his clothes; but they had all turned into stone…”; and later he became a human again, returning to Nicoros’ house (Petronius, Satyricon, 61f, c. CE 60).”
Sources: Illustration by Edward Kinsella; Illustration by Boris Zabirokhin, wolf and man Russian Illustrator; Singer Ruslana and a beautiful Polish Wolf; http://www.beyonddracula.com/the-wolf-warriors; Photo of wolf via danais.ro; Romanian basic history from http://www.folkwearsociety.com – Folkwear Society is a not-for-profit initiative, founded by social anthropologist Ana Bogdan; The Romanian Folk Almanac compiled by Ion Ghinoiu Translated by Doina Carlsson from the Comoara Satelor: Calendar Popular, All Rights Reserve, Published by BTFF, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Copyright © 2010, Ion Ghinoiu; http://ralphhaussler.weebly.com/wolf-mythology-italy-greek-celtic-norse.html; SIM. FL. Marian – the holidays the Romanians, 1898. (David Romano and Mary Voyatzis, suggesting ritual activities on Mount Lykaison since circa 3,000 bce via http://ralphhaussler.weebly.com/wolf-mythology-italy-greek-celtic-norse.html). Pliny’s Natural History 8.34 via http://ralphhaussler.weebly.com/wolf-mythology-italy-greek-celtic-norse.html;