Ukraine Vinok (вінок) Seasonal Wreaths and their Symbolism

Sbu Zapobihla Kontrabandi by the border of cultural values of Kiev Rusy. A unique complex starovynnykh jewellery with gold and silver stayed in Ukraine.
Kyev Rus, Folk Ukraine, this is our story, this is our treasure.

All Slavic traditions and folk traditions include flowers especially during Kupala and Noc Kupala, but Ukraine exceeds them all in the abundant uses of flowers and symbolic flowers. The Ukrainian Wreath Vinok (вінок) is a crown made of wild flowers and herbs which is collected in the traditional ways.

There are different types of wreaths: a wedding wreath, a wreaths of love, monastic wreath, wreath of hope, wreath of devotion and kupala wreaths. The wreath of love was not only for marriage ceremonies but also divorce ceremonies. In Ukrainian culture the wreath was traditionally worn worn by maidens (unmarried) as a pagan tradition. 

ukraine crown
Ukraine “Summer” Vinok Wreath

In the more prominent neopaganism groups today during Kupala, more and more wreaths are returning back before religious influences and are worn by women of all ages. The wreath dates back to the old East Slavic customs that predates Christianization of Rus which still remains a valued part of Ukrainian national creative attire, worn on festive occasions and on holy days.

Flowers are a part of all their celebrations, traditional folklore, craft embroidery, women and their ceremonies, and even painted interior and exterior home decorations. They mark the seasons of Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. The pagans honor Lada and her daughter Lely and the wreaths are in their honor. Midsummer is the time to gather flowers and herbs to not only make wreaths but for healing herbs and for prosperity.

ukraine ribbons
Ukraine “Spring” Vinok Wreath

Some of the most common are the crown for summer solstice called Kupala and are made with cornflower, marigold, saffron, parsley, parsnip, Corollas mint, lovage, marjoram, cornflower and sage, which are all protections against shadows.

In the full traditional Ukrainian wreaths, there should be 12 flowers: Wormwood, immortal, lynx, cornflower, chamomile, cherry blossom, apple, gooseberries, mallow, peonies, cornflower and baptismal bells. Wormwood is a symbol of inertia and immortal, a symbol of the immortality of the human soul. The cherry blossoms are a symbol of maternal love.

The wreath varies in many of the regions as young women throughout the country wore various headdresses made with yarn, ribbon, coins, feathers and grasses, but these all had the same symbolic meaning. In parts of central and eastern Ukraine, the flowers were raised in the center front and multicolored ribbons were attached to the back.

Ukraine wedding crown
Ukraine “Bridal” Vinok Wreath

Custom weaved wreaths denote the seasons as the customs came to Ukraine from prehistoric times and garlands with flowers and herbs are one of the oldest Ukrainian symbols. In ancient Goddess images of women, she wore headdress of flowers, grasses, herbs and branches in her shamanic beginnings.

large flower crown, ukaine
Ukraine “Bridal” Vinok Wreath

Putting your wreaths into water is to tell your future and personal guidance but putting a wreath in the Sea and it will tell the fortune of your soul. Setting wreaths on the water usually accompanies folk songs, because that was the first honoring of the first goddess.

Its more popular today to wear the casual versions of the vinok. It is not uncommon to see women in Kiev wearing a headband embellished with flowers during the summer as a fashion statement or Ukrainian pride. Additionally, the growing popularity of the vinok has contributed to the increase of vinok specialists, as well as the demand of local florists

Ukraine flowers , herbs, color of ribbon and their symbolic meanings…
Braided wreath – Symbol of prosperity and fertility.

autumn ukraine wreath
Ukraine “Autumn” Vinok Wreath

Clover – Symbol of fidelity;
has the magical power to reconnect.

Elecampane – Root of nine forces,
strengthens and returns health.

Fern (Rozmai herb) – Attracts love.
Garlic – Protection, also weaved into
braids on the bride crown before the wedding.

Hatchets – Field grass is a symbol of healthy fields, cornfields and abundance.
Iris – Peace and vitality.

King-flower – Vastness.
Krinov (lily) – Magical symbol of the feminine because she is essentially moist energy. The ancient name of the flower Krinov means “well” as it treats heart ailments.
Kalina (raspberry, rose) – Three sisters, acrimony as a form of magical contact, when there is a prick of blood. Overcoming obstacles, after which comes the miracle and magical dream as the likeness of eternity.

ukraine autumn vinok
Ukraine “Autumn” Vinok Wreath

Loboda – Symbol of misery and poverty.
Lyubka – a symbol of beauty and youth doable.
Lovage – Love, harmony. Bathe in lovage.
Lions (sunflower) – Symbol of fertility, growth and fruiting, and, hence, yield.
Marigold – Mans beauty.
Narcissus – Protects ones health.
Nechuy-wind – Boundaries
Oregano – Symbol of maternal
love and care of children.

Pansies – Symbol of love of family.
Parsley (wormwood) – Spring
Pauline – Bitterness of life, is protection agai
nst shadows.


ukraine.jpgPeppermint – Guardian of children and their health.
Peonies – Flowering of maturity.
Poppies (red)- Beauty, purity and magical forces of protection.

Rozsa (Rose) – Symbol of goodwill, prosperity, and swarming bees.
Red mug – Beauty and cleanliness.
Roman Herb Forest (chamomile) – Love.
Rouget (Rose hips, mallow, rue) – Glory.

Ruta – Sadness and a bitter life.

Vasylko (marigolds) – Ceremonies.
Violets – Joy.
Voloshky (blue cornflower) – Symbol of beauty and goodness, modesty and tenderness.
White Lilac – Family life.
Wreath of Roses -Symbol of health

Colors of Ribbons

ukraine baba
Ukraine Grandmother Vinok

A wreath of flowers and ribbons protects she who wears that halo on her head, it has a magic. Our grandmothers knew and still know this magic well, lot of different secrets of when and how to weave a wreath passed down from her grandmother.

Colorful Wreaths of Magic which is the union of Mother Earth with the Spirit Sky (Sun) as the divine marriage of the powerful belief of immortality – the way of Love. A corolla of intertwined ribbons of different colors, each have meaning:

Light brown: Mother Earth
Yellow: Sun, Blue: Water
Orange: Bread, Purple: Wisdom
Crimson: Sincerity
Pink: Abundance.

ukraine 1

On the left side of the white ribbon is gold thread as the sun, and on the right, silver, as the moon (month).

Red Colors (ribbons and mug, carnation, rowan, viburnum) – Divination and charms, blood and fire. On the one hand it symbolizes beauty, joy and love of life, the other, vengefulness and destruction. Red is used for charms, tends to counteract evil spell.

Popular color in Pysanky eggs and also using red thread, beads and flowers in divination embroidery. The best way to protect children from evil spirits and evil souls in dreams, is to tie the hands of a child something red.

winter ukraine wreath
Ukraine Winter Vinok Wreath

Green – Spring, beauty of nature, transformation, envy.
Purple & Green – Wisdom and caution.
Red & Blue – Fidelity and love.
White & red – Reward and respect.

White (ribbons and flowers) – Purity, innocence, joy. White is associated with daylight and life. Our ancestors believed in the relationship with the divine worlds. White robes are worn women in circles and by ancient priests or magicians. During the first crop of our ancestors wore a clean white shirt. White is also associated with death. Our parents, grandparents deceased wore white clothes and covered with a white shroud. White robes and ghosts are dead people.

Black – Night, Powerful Ancient moon women. Yellow – Sun, gold. In ancient times perceived as sunlight. Blue – Water, eternity. It unearthly secrets of the world. Symbolizes honesty, good reputation and loyalty. In mermaids cold and recalls the shade.

Ukraine neopaganism-folk Vinok (вінок)
Ukraine Neopagan Folk Vinok (вінок).


Ukraine Traditional Folk Dress, Ivano- Frankivsk Region, Ukraine



Ivano-Frankivsk Region, Snyatyn District, Ukraine
Ivano- Frankivsk Region, Snyatyn District, Ukraine

For the whole series of each region of Ukraine go to:

Romanian Folk Magic at Midnight

Maramures, Romania

By Phoenix of Elder Mountain – Magical practice at the stroke of Midnight are symbolic practices and are the gifts of our ancient ancestors of the distant worlds and Romanian women have always kept these traditions alive. The older pagan cultures of the Slavic peoples celebrate the New Year on the Spring Equinox (and Ukraine still does). One such magical practice of the spring new year, which you could use at any equinox or solstice eve, is the tradition done the night before the Spring Equinox…

Goddess celebrations of Spring, in many cultures would last an entire week, from the 19th until the 23rd of March, because the energy of the Spring Equinox is at its strongest then. You can still do the rituals here, just make sure you set your intention clearly and simple…

At the end of the night light year in-between the old and the new year, at 12:00 midnight before the dawn turning into the Spring Equinox…. go and look at the night sky and count  the new stars you see and what will be your destiny. You can also go in the house, put a ring of gold in a glass of water, place it in front of a candle and behind the candle a mirror. They say the one who looks in the mirror sees an opening of the door of their destiny.

Magic Slavic Shamanism Pre Pagn 2Leave a small night light on or a candle in a lantern all night long when you go to sleep and dream, the gates are open to get luck as the old year leaves and the new returns the next morning on the Spring Equinox. They say, if your soul is clear, the opening of the door of the heavens will give you a glimpse.

Maramureș is a geographical, historical and ethno-cultural region in northern Romania and western Ukraine and these village people at midnight lean wood pieced against the home’s outside wall. Each piece of wood represents every soul in your house until morning and when you go outside in the morning to check on them, if any fell over, that’s considered a tough year for the person it was intended for.

Villagers also read the whole year’s weather with onions – cut an onion in half and set out 12 pieces of papers (one for each month of the year). Salt each of them in equal amounts. Set the onion in the center and circle the paper around the onion. Let them sit overnight and in the morning, depending on the amount of water collected, its said that the moisture or dryness of each paper represents the dry or wet months.

I imagine you can also do this with your moon ritual on the day of the spring equinox, if you want and set the intention of difficult moons (wet) and easy moons (dry) and then keep track of your moon cycles the entire year.

On the spring equinox morning ritual take a bath and wash yourself before sunrise. In the water put a silver penny, some basil and a branch of a tree and wash yourself for lucky year and blessings of abundance.

Enjoy and keep the Magic alive, Phoenix

Sources: Iulia Gorneanu, University of Bucharest; first photo a compilation photo including Romanian grandmothers called Baba Dochia and a selection of an image of one of Douglas Girard, figurative Landscape painter; Maramures, Romania Maiden;

Ukraine Ancient Traditions of the Spring Equinox Rites of Vorotar (Gatekeeping)

autumn slavic

This article is from with my additions, from my Shaman’s perspective and experiences – The Ukrainian Spring Equinox is one of the earth’s oldest ceremonies and it honors the ancestors as a ritual of the beginning of the new year Velykden, when the “Day” (Spring & Summer seasons were called Fire) overcomes the “Night” (Autumn & Winter seasons called Night). Vesnianky-hahilky is also known in Galicia as haïvky, iahilky, hahulky, halahilky, iaholoiky, maivky, and rohulky. Ritual folk songs sung by maidens in conjunction with ritual dances in ancient times on the Spring Equinox.

When religion came to the Slavs, the tradition of Mara (Polish Marzanna) lost its origin and thus the demonology books of churchmen forever changed the once pure spring rites and traditions. Mara then, is a female figure in Ukrainian and other corrupted Slavic folk demonology,  who was believed to assume various forms—animal, plant, ghostly (older shamanic traditions), and inanimate or monstrous females to cause people harm. The name was occasionally used to refer to the devil or to a house demon known as a domovyk. But most shamans understand clearly, that woman’s shamanic traditions were corrupted and how the church rose in power and control.

Long ago these songs and dances were performed in the meadows, highlands, along the rivers, but in modern times they are danced and sung in village streets, churchyard and cemetery. Originally their purpose was to give thanks to the mysterious spirit and forces of mother earth (nature) to provide good relations in the shamanic cultures of women, later in pagan times they were to honor nature who would supply people food and a happy life.

The magical functions of the songs was eventually forgotten but in peoples hearts, even though the magical rites are not performed by the grandmothers and mothers, the maidens still perform the dances and songs. As more female Slavic shamans reawaken to their ancient medicines and rites before paganism the more the magic will return.

ukraine eggs 3The vesnianky season in ancient times opened as a rule with a farewell to winter on the spring equinox, but once the churchmen got involved it took place on Candlemas or at the first sighting of migrating birds. A straw or wooden image of winter called Smert (Death), Mara (Specter), or Kostrub (Slob) was burned or drowned to the singing of vesnianky, and then spring, sometimes personified by a girl in a flower and herb wreath, was welcomed with ritual dances, such as Mosty ‘Bridges’ and Vorotar ‘Gatekeeper’. In prepagan times it would have been the Mothers, not maidens who welcomed spring and the grandmothers were the gatekeepers, always have been and always will be regardless of religions.

The dialogue, ‘O Beautiful Spring, what have you brought us?’ ‘I have brought you summer, a pink flower, winter wheat, and all sorts of fragrant things,’ was sung. In some localities bird-shaped bread was baked and tossed by children into the air to represent birds in flight. Many vesnianky were addressed to birds, groves and forests and trees and flowers, asking them to assist the coming of spring.

The oldest vesnianky are those associated with ritual portrayal of plant growth Mak ‘Poppy’, Proso ‘Millet’, Ohirochky ‘Cucumbers’, Khmil’ ‘Hops’, Khrin ‘Horseradish’, Hrushka ‘Pear’, L’on ‘Flax’) and the behavior of birds (Horobchyk ‘Sparrow’, Soloveiko ‘Nightingale’, Husky ‘Geese’, Kachky ‘Ducks’, Kachuryk ‘Drake’), animals (Vovk ‘Wolf’, Lysytsia ‘Fox’, Zaichyk ‘Bunny’), domestic animals (Baran ‘Ram’, Kozel ‘Goat’), and insects (Zhuk ‘Beetle’).

The simple but moving melodies have a deep rhythmic structure punctuated with frequent exclamations. Ryndzivky, a form of vesnianky, were sung at Easter by young men in the Yavoriv area in Galicia.  In Soviet times, the vesnianky began to disappear after the Revolution of 1917 and all original folk traditions that were passed down by village grandmothers for thousands of years by oral traditions, were completely gone by the end of the regimes of the Nazis and the Soviets including the Genocide of Famine to starve the Ukraine people to death in 1932-33.

Source: Mykola Muchynka is still alive and in 1988 Czechoslovak television filmed Lety mii vinochku (Fly, My Wreath), with screenplay by Mykola Mushynka, based on the Ukrainian vesnianky of the Presov Region of Ukraine. He was born the 20th of February 1936 in Kuriv, Bardejov and is a Ukrainian folklorist. After graduating from Prague University (1959) he completed his graduate studies at Kyiv University and again in Prague in 1967. He worked in the department of Ukrainian studies at the Presov campus of Kosice University (1966–71) and founded and edited Naukovyi zbirnyk Muzeiu ukraïns’koï kul’tury u Svydnyku (1965–70) for the Svydnyk Museum of Ukrainian Culture.

Because of his contacts with Ukrainian dissidents and Ukrainian émigrés he was expelled from his job and forbidden to publish. He was not reinstated in a research position until 1990. He has written over 300 studies, articles, and reviews, mainly on folklore and the culture of Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia. He compiled two anthologies of Ukrainian folklore in Eastern Slovakia (1963 and 1967) and a collection of Folk Songs sung by A. Yabur (1970). Besides a study of the folklore of the Ruthenians of Vojvodina (1976) and biographies of Orest Zilynsky (1983) and Stepan Klochurak (1995).

In Ukraine today most songs and dances are performed by professional and amateur ensembles, but to return the magic, the prehistory ways, the shamanic traditions of Ukraine can be returned by those of true female shaman paths of our birth rite initiations, lead by women in great circles again. Much of this tradition is celebrated in modern times as Kupala at the Summer Solstice which is much more popular for the main stream.




Lemko Folk

traditional-dress-of-the-lemko-an-ethnic-group-prevalent-in-ukraine-poland-and-slovakiaLemko (Лемківщина; Lemkivshchyna) and Lemko region is a large territory traditionally inhabited by the Lemko peoples of Ukraine, Poland and Slovak territory since stone age times. After the deportation of Lemkos from the northern part in 1946, only the southern part, southwest of the Carpathian Mountains do these people remain, which is known as the Presov Region in Slovakia and inhabited by Lemkos.

Ethnic identity of the Lemki is somewhat controverted. Ukrainians consider them to be a branch of the Ukrainian Nation with very distinct dialects and customs. The Polish have at various times tried to alternatively suppress, cleanse, or assimilate them. Some insist on calling them Carpatho-Russians. Some claim that they form a micro-nationality who call themselves Rusyny, usually translated into English as Ruthenian. You will find individual Lemki who identify with each of these camps. ‘Lemko’ is a tern coined by their neighbors, referring to a word used in the Lemko dialect ‘lem’, which Ukrainians and Poles do not use. Some Lemki have accepted this term. This term is not used by the Rusnaks who live south of the Carpathians or by the neighboring Slovaks. They form a distinctive group of people with a distinctive group of dialects, whether they are considered to be a branch of the Ukrainians or a closely related brother nation.” (FolkCostume)

The Lemkos who moved to Ukraine were settled mainly in former Polish villages in the Ternopil, Sambir, and Lviv regions and some live in the Donbas. In Ukraine, as in its borders with Poland, they try to preserve their own folklore, especially their folk songs and dances. But the younger generation is losing its distinctive traits and some Ukrainian monuments have been preserved in the Polish museums in Sianik, Nowy Sącz, in Rzeszów, and Peremyshl as well as in Lviv. Most of them, however, have been destroyed, or, lacking government protection, continue to deteriorate.

Representatives of Solidarnosć criticized the Polish authorities for resettling the Lemkos and destroying their indigenous roots, but most Poles consider the Lemkos to be part of the Polish, not the Ukrainian, nation and Ukrainians consider the Lemkos part of theirs. Obviously the Lemko people have indigenous pre-border roots of their own people which long ago were probably regionally nomadic.

Lemkos lived in dark gray area of the map…


Folk beliefs and Folklore фольклор; fol’klor

In Ukrainian folklore scholarship there is an overwhelming tendency to equate folklore with folk oral literature but it doesn’t and does not have a relationship as most of the indigenous rites are missing and only held by shamans (sorcerers) and folk magicians who carry on their traditions not known to the general public. Witches and Shaman do not really have too much in common either, even through ancient witches were healers, shamans go back much further in their prehistory than witches.

In the discipline folk tales and the tales of magic, animal tales, legends, anecdotes, etc, folk songs (ritual songs and non-ritual songs), and items of the minor verbal genres (proverbs and riddles) are collected and studied. Some of the animal tales, some songs and games, and certain types of proverbs and riddles are children’s folklore that had once been more indigenous oral traditions of the Lemko but only have small amounts that remained in children’s folklore.

lemkow-wooden-house-open-air-museum-in-sanok-polandPre-Christian Lemko folk customs and rites have been described in Arabic and Byzantine sources. Other documentation of Ukrainian folklore is found in the earliest of literary monuments in Ukraine (ie, in the chronicles and Slovo o polku Ihorevi), where instances of folk prose, proverbs, and ritual songs can be found. Christianity introduced into Ukraine not only dogma but also apocryphal and classical folklore traditions which were highly monitored by church fathers. The pagans fought much of this but lost their connections to their past traditions. The shamans even lost more of theirs of the pre-pagan rites of prehistory.

A fundamentally religious interpretation of the world that determines the conduct and the attitude of the common people towards the forces of nature and the events of ordinary life. These beliefs are passed on by tradition or spring from an animistic view of natural phenomena, spiritual life (eg, the souls of the dead), and inanimate objects, or dreams.

Lemko folk beliefs encompass almost all events and objects of the external world, which are held to have a determining influence on individual destiny. There is a rich body of beliefs connected with the sun, moon, and stars. There are many different beliefs about atmospheric phenomena which is an indigenous Lemko (pre-pagan era) belief in the clouds, storms, thunder, winds, rainbows and actions of fire, water, earth, stones, plants, animals, and birds as well as shamanic talisman and amulets have survived through some of the oldest folk crafts and symbolism within weaving of Ukraine. Most think Paganism is the oldest religion, but that only sprang out of the shamanic cultures of the earlier indigenous.

A special cycle of beliefs in rituals deals with one’s personal appearance, the one’s way of seeing, of speaking, and of breathing—and with the main events in life of the cycles and seasons of our life along with our birth, marriage, family and death, Folk beliefs also include these. The more spiritual shamanic levels are about the wandering and appearance of fog, the wandering lights, the sacred women’s fern flowers, the dark shadows of the wolf clan people who took their demons (werewolves), the healers who were witches and the earlier sorcerers (shamans who carry true magic), and so on have served as sources of themes for many Lemko traditions (Slovak, Poland and Ukraine) earlier Slavic people.

Folk Calendar народний календар; narodnyj kalendar

A folk method of measuring time, based on centuries of observations of periodic changes in nature and the moon cycle along with women’s bleeding cycle. All indigenous people of pre-pagan times were on this natural calendar. The seasons were the earliest measure of longer periods of time; at first two seasons were recognized and that was a direct season of lunar rites of the shaman women.

lemkow-polandLater the warm and the cold, spring and winter were replaced by the sun calendar of the four seasons. The ancient including Lemkos and Hutsuls lived within the natural rhythms of the Season of Fire (Spring and Summer) and the season of Night (Autumn and Winter). The time based on the phases of the moon (misiats) originated in Ukraine in prehistorical times and carries the same name as the moon (misiats month). That this system was used by the ancient Slavic people up to the time of the pagan eras and is evident from the names of the lunar moon months and the year began with nature’s year on the Spring Equinox of March:

Berezen or Berezozol (March), Kviten (April), Traven or Travny (May), Cherven (June), Lypen (July), Serpen (August), Veresen (September), Lystopad (November), Hruden (December), Sichen (January), Liutyi or Snizhen (February).

Evidence shows that the division of the year into months (moon cycles of woman’s cultures) dates back to prehistoric times: A ritual chalice of the 3rd–4th century ce was found in the Village of Lepesivka in Volhynia, represents the months (moons) in symbols, and a Polianian calendar of the 4th century from the village of Romashky in the Kyiv region defines the spring and summer cycles as running from the emergence of shoots at the beginning of May to the completion of harvest in the first half of August.

In the Ukrainian folk calendar, as in the calendars of many other nations, the year consisted of 13 months (moons), which coincided with the lunar cycles. It began on the 1st through 1 April (the New Year). The beginning, duration, and end of the year were defined by the sun’s position on the equinoxes, the moon’s phases. The dates folk rituals that inaugurated, separated, or marked the end of the various seasons of the year or periods of agricultural work were determined in the same way.  Later these folk feasts and rituals were combined with Christian church holidays and saints’ days and are grouped in four cycles to fit into the Christian Sun Calendar of the Romans and Greeks.

lemko-ukrainianThe turn of the century saw an impressive number of folklore collections and studies. Two outstanding members of the commission were Ivan Franko and Volodymyr Hnatiuk. Franko wrote numerous articles on folk oral literature, but his greatest contribution to Ukrainian folklore remains his six-volume edition of Ukrainian proverbs, Halyts’ko-rus’ki narodni prypovidky (Galician-Ruthenian Folk Proverbs), published as part of Etnohrafichnyi zbirnyk. The most productive ethnographer and folklorist of this period was V. Hnatiuk. He was responsible for the publication of most of the volumes of Etnohrafichnyi zbirnyk, contributing on a variety of folklore genres as editor, collaborator, collector, and critic. One of his singular achievements is the six-volume Etnohrafichni materiialy z Uhors’koï Rusy (Ethnographic Materials from Hungarian Ruthenia). His publication (together with P. Tarasevsky) Das Geschlechtsleben des ukrainischen Bauernvolkes in 1909–10 is also noteworthy.

In the interwar period there was a lull in folklore studies in Western Ukraine in comparison with the days prior to the First World War. In contrast, the twenties were marked by an explosion of activity in Soviet Ukraine exemplified by the growth of a multitude of commissions, museums, societies, committees, and institutes. These activities came to almost a complete halt in the thirties. In Western Ukraine the outstanding folklorist of the period was the musicologist Filaret Kolessa, who had published before the First World War; he continued his work on a variety of musical genres and regional music, wrote encyclopedia articles, and published the first Ukrainian school text (an introduction and a reader) devoted solely to oral folklore, Ukraïns’ka usna slovesnist’ (Ukrainian Oral Literature, 1938). A contemporary of Kolessa’s was the literary scholar Mykhailo Vozniak, who published a number of manuscripts containing folk songs and dumas from the 17th and 18th centuries.

lemkoThe historian Mykhailo Hrushevsky, who as president of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in the period before the First World War had published the first two volumes of Etnohrafichnyi zbirnyk, continued his work in the Ukrainian SSR. Parts of his Istoriia ukraïns’koï literatury (History of Ukrainian Literature) are valuable in Ukrainian oral folklore studies. His daughter, Kateryna Hrushevska, published a two-volume collection of the duma genre. Another musicologist of note was Klyment Kvitka, whose publications are numerous. His collection Ukraïns’ki narodni melodiï (Ukrainian Folk Melodies, 1922), containing over 700 melodies of various genres of Ukrainian folk songs, is still an important source for Ukrainian musicologists. Of the prose collections published in this period, only Mykola Levchenko’s Kazky ta opovidannia z Podillia v zapysakh 1850–1860kh rr. (Folk Tales and Stories from Podilia Transcribed in the 1850s and 1860s, 1928), containing collections made by Andrii Dyminsky and Stepan Rudansky, is of any importance. The leading ethnographic journal was Etnohrafichnyi visnyk (1925–32), and the most complete bibliography up to 1916 was published by Oleksander Yu. Andriievsky (1930).

The Lemko region occupies the lowest part of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and has a series of mountain passes along the Torysa River and Poprad River—Tylych Pass (688 m), Duklia Pass (502 m), and Lupkiv Pass and facilitate communications between Galician and Transcarpathian Lemkos. The northern border with the Poles runs along the first mountain ridges, which closed off the Ukrainian ethnic territory from the low foothills populated densely by the Poles (south of the Ptaszkowa–Szymbark–Cieklin–Żmigród–Dukla–Rymanów line).

Toward the east the Ukrainian-Polish border descends from the highlands and runs across the foothills which is an ethnically mixed zone. The southern, Slovak limit of the Lemko region has many ethnic islands and peninsulas: expanded far north along the wide Torysa River, Toplia River, Ondava River and Laborets River, whereas the Lemkos generally inhabited the mountains. The eastern border with other Ukrainian ethnic groups consists of a wide Lemko–Boiko transitional belt from the Oslava River to the Solynka River.

During the Nazi occupation, the entire Country of Ukraine was cut off Militaristically and 1 million Ukraine people starved to death, including many of the Lemko people.The number of Lemkos in Galicia in 1939 was estimated at (depending on whether or not the transitional groups were included) 140,000 to 200,000, and in the Presov Region around 100,000 to 140,000.


Most of Ukraine, Poland and Slovak systems of esoteric and magic were born from the Indigenous Lemko and Hustul earlier traditions. A set system of rituals and invocations having a mysterious mystical power of “a natural relationship with mother earth” – and not to influence physical phenomena or natural events as later pagans through witchcraft did.

Shamanic pre-pagan principles are based not on power, but personal empowerment of the health of women in power circles, with direct relationship to the animals, birds, and nature herself. Late magical practices of the pagans can be traced into the past of witchcraft. They can be classified by their social function into love, medical, preventative, productive, and meteorological, or by their psychological mechanism into contact (touching an object), imitative (similarity or mimicry), and sympathetic (substitution of part for the whole).

Magic played an important role, particularly in the peasant culures of pagans. Not a step could be taken without it and it was used widely in medicine of shamans who dreamed in prior pagan eras. Pagan era Witches like most witches of earth after the 12th and 13th centuries, used magic as prayer, incantations, spells and charms, often combined with rational practices, employing natural flower medicines and counsel, which were very positive.

Water and Fire elements were held in the highest esteem by  Indigenous Ukrainian sorcerers (shamans) as this was part of the matriarchal lineage of the bird and serpent cultures of shamanism.  Magic was also an important part of calendar folk rituals tied to shamanic cultures of hunting and nomadic regional living. Later in the earliest of the pagan cultures, it was tied to farming (sowing, harvesting rituals and family life (birth, wedding, and death.

5a6d87d2The egg phenomena came later when there was no outlet for true shamanic magic anymore of women’s lunar rituals and the egg was a good symbol for that fertility of the world egg, which have been in many older indigenous countries. It represented in the shamanic cultures, the womb medicines of woman, the incubation of her creativity, her  dreams and visions and the life containment of her reality, teachings and relationship with the earth. Later the egg represented in pagan cultures began to express the fertility of child birth and magic and in its last forms of expression of what we have today, was the coming of the Christian fathers and their birth of Christ.

The art of Pysanky Egg in the 19th century began to express unconscious connects to the pagan and shamanic past, but church approved, now its a great art form of all of it wrapped into one egg. The rituals of wetting with water and leaping over a fire are the connection to the two seasons of the year (water: autumn and winter solstice) and the second half of the year (fire: spring and summer solstice). The rituals of the fur coats were all symbolic rituals of shamanic connections of animism (shape shifting), the oldest ritual symbolism of the circle of woman.

More modern and in late pagan peasant times, these were associated with maiden and her fertility (abundance, wealth).

The most common was what I term Confusion Magic was when Christianity and Pagan cultures of the Slavic people merged, and the benevolent magic turned malevolent because of the changing of the times and the dominance of the stigma onto paganism. Most teachings of any magic or shamanism of any peoples were downplayed and then lost by the 15th century. But Slavic people like African people tended to just merge the two.


In the Middle Ages white magic, which invoked the saints and angels, and black magic, which turned to ‘unclean spirits’ such as demons, were practiced widely in Ukraine. The alleged practitioners of black magic were often women who had authority of the old ways of community for healing the sick and what remained of the shamanic culture. But they were tried by the community and the courts, but there were no witch hunts comparable to those known in Western Europe and the Americas.

Weaving, Weavers and Embroiderers ткацтво; tkatstvo

lemko-in-chuhania-coatWeaving has been practiced in Ukraine for many centuries. Using flax, hemp, or woolen thread, weavers have produced various articles of folk dress, towels (see Rushnyk), kilims, blankets, tablecloths, sheets, and covers. The colors, ornamentation, and even the techniques of weaving varied from region to region. By the 14th century weaving had developed into a cottage industry. Weavers’ guilds modeled on Western European examples were founded in Sambir (1376), Lviv, and elsewhere in Galicia.

They tried to improve weaving techniques and the quality of the products. Later, artistic textiles and kilims were manufactured by small enterprises established by magnates in Brody (1641), Lviv, Nemyriv, Zalishchyky, Korsun, Korets, Kyiv, and Horokhiv. In 17th-century Left-Bank Ukraine the Cossack starshyna established similar enterprises to make decorative furnishings on order for the nobility and churches, using imported silk and gold thread. Eventually such thread was manufactured in Ukraine.

Eastern Lemko Embroidery via

Weaving flourished from the mid-17th to the mid-19th century and sometimes people were imported weavers from Turkey, Armenia, and Persia which meant the Oriental designs became popular in Ukraine. In the 17th century Emmanuel of Corfu (Korfynsky) established a factory for luxurious silk and gilded textiles in Lviv, Ukraine. Many weavers were trained there, and they disseminated their craft throughout Ukraine. From the 1650s on the development of weaving as a cottage textile industry intensified in Ukraine. The town of Krolevets became one of the largest centers of artistic folk weaving.

Eastern Lemko Traditional Clothing via
Eastern Lemko Traditional Clothing via

Ukrainian textiles were popular abroad, where they were called ‘Ruthenian textiles’ by foreign merchants. In the mid-19th century commercial weaving began declining. To reverse the trend and to improve the technology and the artistic level of weaving, various zemstvos created weaving schools (eg, in Dihtiari and Shylovychi, in Chernihiv gubernia) and weaving departments in technical-industrial schools.

In late-19th-century Austrian-ruled Galicia renewed interest in folk-weaving techniques and designs prompted the opening of weaving schools and kilim-weaving shops in villages such as Vikno, Kosiv, and Hlyniany. To promote the merits of Galician folk weaving, exhibits of their wares were included in industrial and agricultural expositions. There they won awards and attained a reputation as far abroad as North America.

Eastern Lemko Traditional beading embroidery via

In early Soviet Ukraine, efforts were made to revive handicraft and commercial artistic weaving. The School of Ukrainian Folk Masters was set up in Kyiv in 1920 and then reorganized into the Kyiv State School of Applied Art. It gathered together many noted folk artisans, who passed on their skills and knowledge to their apprentices. Since the 1930s the main centers of artistic weaving in Soviet Ukraine have been Bohuslav and Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in Kyiv oblast, Krolevets in Sumy oblast, Dihtiari in Chernihiv oblast, and Reshetylivka and Velyki Sorochyntsi in Poltava oblast. After the Second World War weaving artels were organized in those centers and in Galicia (particularly Lviv, Kosiv, and Yavoriv), Bukovyna, and Transcarpathia, where artistic commercial and domestic weaving has continued developing.

woven-wraparound-skirt-plakhtaToday weavers are trained at tekhnikums of folk handicrafts; designers are educated at schools of applied art in Lviv, Vyzhnytsia, and Krolevets or at departments of artistic textiles at institutes of decorative and applied art in Kyiv, Kharkiv, and Lviv. Mass-produced woven ornamental articles are made at the Kherson (see Kherson Cotton Textile Manufacturing Complex), Donetsk, and Ternopil cotton-manufacturing complexes, the Kyiv (see Kyiv Silk Manufacturing Complex), Darnytsia, and Lutsk silk-manufacturing complexes, and the Kyianka Kerchief Factory in Kyiv. (See also Kilim weaving and Textile industry.)

There is much disagreement concerning the early history of the Prešov region and of the Ukrainians (Ruthenians) living south of the Carpathian Mountains. Archeological evidence suggests that the region was already inhabited during the late Stone Age. From the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD a series of peoples—Celts, Dacians, Goths, Huns, and Avars—passed through, settling there briefly and leaving behind remnants of their way of life.

Linguistic and archeological evidence indicates that by the 6th or 7th century AD the region’s inhabitants were Slavs, although there is no consensus on whether they were West Slavs (‘ancestors’ of the Slovaks) or East Slavs (White Croatians, ‘ancestors’ of the Ruthenians [Ukrainians]). It seems that the first permanent settlers in the Prešov region arrived from north of the Carpathian Mountains sometime between the 6th and 11th centuries, which date would suggest that they were East Slavs.


Slovak scholars contend, however, that there was a continuous settlement of West Slavs from the 7th century, and that the ancestors of the Ukrainian-Ruthenians did not arrive in the area until their migration from Galicia beginning in the 14th century (a view also held by Hungarian scholars). It has also been debated whether the Prešov region received Christianity in the Byzantine form from the Bulgarian Empire in the 9th century or from Kyivan Rus’ in the 11th century. In the Prešov region, for which there are documents beginning only in the 14th century, were initially under the jurisdiction of the Orthodox bishop of Peremyshl and then (after the 15th century) the bishop of Mukachevo.

Throughout its early history the Prešov region was a sparsely settled border area between the Hungarian Kingdom to the south and the Rus’ Halych principality to the north. In the 11th and 12th centuries the Hungarian kings pushed northward toward the crest of the Carpathians and even beyond, into parts of Galicia, where they ruled intermittently until the end of the 14th century. To ensure their control of that northern border region the Hungarian kings granted, during the 14th century, large tracts of land to princes (mostly from southern Italy and therefore related to Hungary’s new ruling House of Anjou), such as the Drugeth family in Zemplin county (see Zemplén Komitat) and the Perényi family in Šariš county. Thus from the 12th century until 1918 the Prešov region was to remain within the political and socioeconomic framework of the Hungarian Kingdom.



The southern Lemko region belonged to Kyiv’s sphere of influence from the mid-10th century to the 1020s, when it came under the rule of Hungary. The eastern part of the northern Lemko region, extending to the Wisłoka River, belonged to Kyivan Rus’, and then the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia. After Casimir III occupied the eastern part of the Lemko region in the 1340s, the entire Lemko region came under the rule of Poland until 1772. The eastern part formed the so-called Sianik land, which was part of Rus’ voivodeship; the western part was integrated into Krakow voivodeship.

lemkos-dress-%d0%bb%d0%b5%d0%bc%d0%bai%d0%b2%d1%81%d1%8c%d0%ba%d0%b5-%d0%b2%d0%b1%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%bd%d1%8fFrom the mid-14th century three colonization waves penetrated the Lemko region: Slovak-German colonists from the southwest, who settled in Transcarpathia; German-Polish colonists from the northwest; and Ukrainians, with Wallachian herdsmen, who settled in the east. Colonization ended in the 16th century, although some new settlements sprang up in the 17th century. By the end of the 16th century the contemporary Lemko dialects had been formed, and the dialects’ boundaries, which with minor changes lasted until 1946, had been established. In spite of political divisions, Galician and Transcarpathian Lemkos maintained close ties and rituals.

Animals were bought in the spring in the Boiko region and Hutsul region and then sold in the fall in neighboring towns. After the servitude were abolished and grazing in the forests were restricted, animal husbandry declined, and dairy farming and crop growing (oats, potatoes, flax, and, in the northern Sianik region, rye and wheat) expanded. Occupations included lumbering and Arts & Traditional Crafts (cottage industry) such as weaving, textiles, embroidery and woodworking.  The Lemkos also found work and markets for their dairy products, berries and mushrooms at spas and health resorts in Shchavnytsia, Krynytsia (Krynica), Zhegestiv, Vysova, Iwonicz, and Rymanów.

All sources from :


Thunderstorms in the Twilight – Part 1: The Pleiades


By Phoenix of Elder Mountain – I am doing a three part article on the shadows of Star Lore and how we have gone too far from earth because of the mind cults, and as earthlings everyone is born, dies and are reborn from our mother (earth) even the aliens. The first will be the Seven Sisters who science called the Pleiades. The seven sisters sit in a cluster inside the belly of Taurus the Bull, one of the four sacred cardinal points and associated with the Bull cultures like the Hindus, the Minoans etc. The Bull is feminine and so are her cultures, its symbolic meanings and shadows of the lost ones who wish to find themselves again after lifetimes. The second article will be Orion and the third article will be Sirius, the dog star-lore.

The wisdom of the Seven Goddesses (sisters)…

When one finally chooses to move onto the path of choosing a relationship to seek the authentic self, our truth telling and telling our self the truth path, its filled with emotional ups and downs and learning to bend chaos to stay grounded. The knowledge-spiritual, psycho-spiritual, social-spiritual, plant (drug) spiritual, drama-spiritual, dating-spiritual, paranormal-spiritual and book-spiritual all tend to fade away when we begin a self healing, self mastery and self spiritual journey and its duration. This generally starts around 37 when the Uranus opposition occurs and the energy of truth/chaos vs freedom energy begins. The adult crisis or transformation time.

The Pleiades no longer mark the ancient rites of passage in ceremony of the great circle of women and have a more blissful or adventure star-lore in modern times, but their origins do not seem to hide the struggles and the struggles of collective myth. The problem is with the reality of collective in general when it comes to mental body arts as in written myth handed down for millenniums. Its hard to master the person and impossible to master the collective, because… its the collective. The associations have persisted nevertheless of the morning and shadow sides accounts for the significance of the Pleiades in older cultures and astrologically.

“The Moon is set and the Pleiades.
Night’s half gone, Time is passing.
I sleep alone now.”    ~ Sappho

The Seven Sisters name means “Daughters of Pleione” from the Greek word pleiôn “Ladies of Plenty.” Her Age of Taurus of her Bull and Cow 1,200 bce – 2012 ce.

Maia – “grandmother,” “mother,” “nurse,” “the great one” or “good nursing mother.” The oldest of the Pleiades, she is the mother of Hermes.

Alcyone – Also called Halcyone, “queen who wards of evil storms” or “strong helper”. By Poseidon, she is the mother of Anthas, Aethusa, Hyperenor and Hyrieus.

Asterope – Also spelled Sterope, “lightning,” “twinkling,” “sun-face,” “stubborn-face,” “star-faced” or “flashing-face.” Mother of Oenomaus, the king of Pisa. Ares and Oenomaus are her husbands.

Celaeno – “swarthy,” “black” or “dark.” She is the mother of Eurypylus and Lycus. A different account says that by Prometheus, she is the mother Lycus and Chimærus.

Electra – “amber,” “shining,” “bright.” Mother of Dardanus, the founder of Troy. Some accounts place Electra as the mother of Iasion. She is called Atlantis by Ovid. According to Thaumas, this Electra may be the mother of the Harpies.

Merope – “eloquent,” “bee-eater,” “mortal” or “sparkling-face.” The youngest of the Pleiades, she was wooed by Orion. Merope sons: Glaucus, Ornytion and Sinon. She is sometimes said to be the mother of Daedalus, Alcippe and Iphinoe.

Taygete – Also spelled Taigete, “long-necked” or “of Mount Taygetus.” Mother of Lacedaemon, the founder of Sparta. She is an important goddess.

Seven Sisters Asteroids, Pleiades Asteroids:

Maia asteroid #66 (Maja)
Asterope asteroid #233
Celaeno asteroid #3857
Electra asteroid #130
Merope asteroid #1051


When I work with archetypes, symbolism, synchronicity which are the actions or results of symbolism in the real living aspects, or lore and folklore, art, ancient art, myths, folkology, oral traditions, traditional folk arts, or fine arts, astrology, esoteric, even astronomy – all of them are seeking perception of the other side of the entire reality we live in the old dynamics of the myth makers world.

As we unplug from the blindness and the ancient myths that no longer serve, its all about our emotional and mental health or the wellspring, some call it the gates to the self.  I have walked this path for the truth (personal, interpersonal and collective in that order) and the truth to seek wholeness and pick out the corrupted or rotten parts of self, to apply this to the working symbolism and healing of my spiritual path…

Lets start with the Pleiades Star Lore…


In Ukrainian traditional folklore the Pleiades are known as Стожари (Stozhary), Волосожари (Volosozhary) and Баби-Звізди (Baby-Zvizdy). Stozhary can be etymologically traced to “стожарня” (stozharnya) meaning reduced to the root “сто-жар”, (sto-zhar) which means a ‘hundredfold glowing’ or “a hundred embers”. The name for this constellation in Lithuanian is Sietynas and Sietiņš in Latvian. Both of which have a root word: sietas meaning “a sieve.” In Ukraine this asterism of the seven sisters was considered a female talisman until recent times.

Ukraine ‘Volosozhary’ means she with the glowing hair and ‘Baby-Zvizdy’ (female-stars) referrs to the female tribal deities of the goddess traditions. According to legend, seven mothers who lived long ago used the round dance in the autumn equinox to winter solstice, to sing the glories of the ancestors and old ones. After their death the ancestors turned them into water deities and took them to the Heavens, what is today know as Nymphs who don’t really carry any of the ancient qualities. Round dances in their origins of the Slavs and Balkans where symbolic for the “moving and movements the time” which was based on Nomadic lifestyles.

In both Latvian and Lithuanian folktales, the Pleiades constellation is shown as an inanimate object, a sieve that is stolen by the devil from the god of thunder used to bring light rain by the thunder god’s wife and children. In some Lithuanian folk songs, Sietynas is depicted as a benevolent brother who helps orphaned girls to marry.

the-heavens-seemed-to-be-on-fire-kay-nielsenKnown since ancient times, its popular name of was: Pleiades, Mother Hen with Chicks designated by their mythological names from the Greek poet Aratus (III century BCE). Later, when Christians were approaching the Goddess and Pagan era’s it was known as the Dove, and dove is associated with peaceful soul. But almost all of the traditional and indigenous traditional stories reveal that the Pleiades shows symbolically that they are associated with loss, destruction and shadow, probably after the wars on the soul of the building of the kingdoms through religious domination over paganism and goddess cultures and then strictly through the military of the kingdoms which developed later after the 7th century ce.

In world lore, the Pleiades seem to have two meanings, the first and oldest lore, its associated with planting and harvesting times. The second and later folklore is about morning and loss. to the Bronze Age people and probably considerably earlier, the Pleiades were associated with funerals of the clans and tribes, since its the time after abundance, cross-quarter day between the autumn equinox and the winter solstice, it was from this acronychal rising that the Pleiades became associated with mourning.


Contrarianism – Daughters of an Amazon Queen – While many variations of the Greek myths in the Idylls, the Pleiades are the daughters of an Amazon Queen and the only one who listed by the Greeks or what was left, was the Grandmother. She is also in the Roman mythology as the Goddess of fertility, Latin Maia, literally “She who brings increase,” related to magnus “great.” Maia, one of the Pleiades Greek Goddesses was then reduced by the Greeks into daughter from the Amazons Great Grandmother and Romans great Mother. Maia to the Greeks is daughter of Atlas, mother of Hermes, literally “mother, good mother, dame; foster-mother, nurse, midwife,” said by Watkins to be from infant babbling.

Their Amazon Pleiades names are: Coccymo, Glaucia, Lampado, Maia, Parthenia, Protis and Stonychia and these sisters created ritual dances at nighttime in what are legends today (before Dionysus Cult took them over).

North Africa & the Old Kingdom of Egypt
The goddess Hathor has an interesting take in her role and aspect as a Mother goddess for it was believed by the ancient Egyptians that “Seven Hathors” would appear at the birth of a new baby, foretelling the baby’s fate. The reason they’re mentioned is that during the Ptolemaic Period, when Egypt was under Greek rule, the Seven Hathors became identified with the Pleiades star cluster. Aside from Hathor, the Pleiades also represented the goddess Net or Neith, the “Divine Mother and Lady of Heaven.”

The Tuareg Berbers call the Pleiades by the name of: Cat ihed, s “daughters of the night” and Amanar “the guide” and Tagemmunt “the group.” The changing of the seasons to prepare for the heat of summer and the colder weather that the rainy season brings.

East Africa – In the Swahili language, the Pleiades are called: “kilimia” which means to “dig” or “cultivate.”

South Africa The Basotho call the Pleiades “Seleme se setshehadi” meaning the “female planter.” When the Pleiades leave the night sky around April, marks the beginning of their cold season. The Khoikhoi tribe call the Pleiades by the name of Khuseti, the stars of rain or rain bearers.

Mesopotamian –
Babylonian mythology and astronomy, the Pleiades are called MUL.MUL or “star of stars”.

ArabicThe Pleiades are known as al-Thurayya, the star, Aldebaran, meaning “the Follower” which is part of the Taurus constellation is seen as forever chasing al-Thurayya across the night sky.

Iran, Persian Pleiades are known as Parvin.

Judeo-Christian Pleiades are identified as being Kimah, meaning “cluster,” there is an indirect reference to this asterism found in Revelations 1:16: “In his right hand he held seven stars, and coming out of his mouth was a sharp, double-edged sword.” A context of harshness and the power of language and word over all things feminine. The Talmud Rosh Hashanah tells that mankind’s wickedness, removes two of its stars and caused that this star cluster would rise with the dawn and out of season alignment. This mean’s that men have done destruction and harshness to the earth and her seasons, I think Nasa and Cern have been the living proof of such destruction to not only the magnetic fields, but now the auroras.

Pakistan Carrying a positive in the name Parvin, the stars it represents is a symbol of beauty.

Karatgurk – Wurundjeri of Australia, the Pleiades represent a group of seven sisters known as the Karatgurk. They were the first to hold the secrets of fire and each of the sisters carried live coals on the end of their digging stick. The sisters refused to share the coals with anyone and eventually were tricked into giving up the secret of fire to Crow who in turn brought the gift of fire to the rest of humanity.

Kidili – A moon god of the Mandjindja from Western Australia, he had tried to rape some of the first women on Earth. In retaliation, the lizard men, Wati-kutjara attacked and castrated him using a boomerang before leaving him to die in a watering hole. As for the women, they became the Pleiades star cluster.

Kungkarungkara They are the ancestral women in the lore of the Pitjantjatjara tribe.

Makara Adnyamathanha tribe, the Makara (The Pleiades) are the wives of stars within the Orion constellation.

Napaltjarri From Central Australia, they were seven sisters being chased by Jilbi Tjakamarra. He had attempted to use love magic on one of the sisters. She refused Jilbi’s advances and she and her sisters fled from him.

In this story of the Koori’s Dreamtime, the Pleiades or the Seven Sisters were a group of seven beautiful ice maidens. Their parents were huge mountain whose peaks were hidden by the clouds and an ice-cold stream who flowed from some snow covered hills. The Seven Sisters would wander the land, their long hair flowing out behind them like storm clouds. One day, a man by the name of Wurrunnah, caught two of the sisters and forced them to live with him while the others continued on their journey home to the sky. Wurrunnah soon found that the sisters he caught were ice-maidens and took them to his camp fire in order to try and melt the ice off of them. This only served to put out his fire and dimming the brightness of the two sisters.

Berai Berai Brothers And The Seven SistersAnother story told of the Seven Sisters is that when they were on earth, of all the men in love with their beauty, the Berai Berai or two brothers were the most devoted. They always brought all the choicest catches from their hunts to the Sisters as an offering and token of their love. This love was not returned and when the Sisters wandered away, up to the mountains, the Berai Berai followed after them. After the Sisters left for their journey to the sky, the Berai Berai mourned. A grave depression fell upon them that they eventually died. The spirits of the Dreamtime took pity on the brothers and placed them up in the sky, up where they could hear the Sisters sing. On clear nights, the Berai Berai can be seen, represented by the stars that form Orion’s Sword and Belt.

Ben Raji – Living in western Nepal and northern India, the semi-nomadic Ban Raji refer to the Pleiades as the “Seven Sisters-In-Law and One Brother-In-Law” or “Hatai halyou daa salla.” For the Ban Raji, when the Pleiades rise up over the mountains at night, they see their ancient kinfolk. e.

Celtic – The Celts associated the Pleiades with grief, mourning and funerals. At this period of time and history, the time of the Autumn Equinox and Solstice would have occurred around the time that the Pleiades star cluster rose in the eastern skyline as the sun set.

Aztecs – The Aztecs strongly believed their ceremony would prevent demons of darkness from coming to the Earth and devouring mankind. For this, they offered up to the gods human sacrifices to the Pleiades.

Chinese – Pleiades are known as Mao, the Hairy Head of the White Tiger of the West. The Pleiades seem to be the first stars mentioned in astronomical literature, appearing in the Annals of 2357 B.C.E. Aside from the name Mao, the Pleiades are also known as The Blossom Stars and Flower Stars.

Greek CatasterismIf the Pleiades weren’t getting chased by Orion, then they became stars after committing suicide over the fate of their father Atlas, a Titan. Or the loss of their siblings the Hyades and Hyas. After their death, the god Zeus placed the sisters up into the heavens.

India – Pleiades are known by a number of different names such Karttikeya, Kṛttikā, Kārtikā, Kumara or Subrahmanya. In both Indian astronomy and Hindu astrology, the names Krttika and Kartika translate into English means “the cutters.” Hindu – A story associated with this star cluster tells how the war-god Skanda was raised by six sisters known as Kṛttikā, making it so that one of his names he is known as is Kartikeya or “Son of the Kṛttikā.” Skanda or Kartikeya was born to Agni and Svāhā after the Kṛttikā had impersonated themselves as six of the seven wives of the Saptarshi in order to make love with Agni. When the Saptarshi learned of this incident, they began to doubt their wives’ chastity and divorced them.  The Pleiades are known as the Star of Fire and one of the most prominent of nakshatras associated with anger and stubbornness. They are ruled by the Hindu god of war, Kartikeya. Another deity associated with Kṛttikā is Agni, a god of sacred fire. Additionally, it is ruled by the sun or Surya and has the symbols of a knife or spear.

Japanese – Pleiades star cluster is known as Subaru, meaning “coming together,” “cluster” or “united.”

Blackfoot – The Lost Boys – This is a story in which the Pleiades are a group of orphaned boys not taken care of by anyone, and Sun Man was angered by the boys’ neglect, so he punished the people with a drought, causing the buffalo to leave and be destroyed. The wolves, the only friends the boys had ever had, intervened for the people to have the buffalo return. Sadden by their lives on earth, the boys asked the Sun Man to allow them to play up in the heavens. In addition, to remind the tribe of their neglect of the children, they hear the howling of the wolves calling.

Cheyenne A Cheyenne legend, “The Girl Who Married a Dog,” tells how the Pleiades stars represent puppies that a Cheyenne chief’s daughter gave birth to after being visited by a dog in human form. Dogs are the lowest form of men in their animism shape from too much karma.

Cherokee Both the Cherokee and Onondaga tribes tell a similar story about a group of seven boys who refused to any of their sacred responsibilities and only wanted to play.

Crow The Crow military societies have many songs that use a play on words referencing the Pleiades constellation of high ideals to many amusing or comical stories.

Inuit Nanook, the Inuit Bear God, a great bear threatened all of the people. This bear was chased up into the heavens by a pack of dogs.

Kiowa There is a legend told about how seven maidens were being chased by giant bears. The Great Spirit created Mateo Tepe, the Devil’s Tower and placed the young women there. Still the bears pursued the maidens, clawing at the sides of the sheer cliffs.

Lakota There is a legend that links the origin of the Pleiades with Devils Tower. This constellation is known as Cmaamc, an archaic plural form of the noun cmaam, meaning “woman.”

Mono The Monache tell a story how the Pleiades are six women who loved onions more than their husbands were thrown out of their homes by their angry husbands and found their way up to the heavens. When the husband grew lonely and tried to find their wives, it was too late.

Nez Perce They have a myth about Pleiades that parallels the ancient Greek myth and the Lost Pleiades. In this myth, the Pleiades are a group of sisters and one of the sisters falls in love with a man. When he died, she was so grief stricken, that she finally told her sisters about him. The other sisters mocked her, telling her how foolish she is to mourn the death of a human. This sister continued to grow in her sorrow, to the point she became ashamed of her own feelings that she pulled a veil over herself, blocking herself from view in the night sky.

Onondaga Their version represented lazy children who wanted to dance instead of doing their chores. All the while as they ignored the warnings of the Bright Shining Old Man. Eventually, light headed and dizzy from hunger, they died.

Shasta – In their stories, the Pleiades are the children of Raccoon who are killed by Coyote while avenging their father’s death. After death, they rose up to become the Pleiades. The smallest star in the asterism is seen as Coyote’s youngest child who helped Raccoon’s children. This shows the lower form of animals as having power instead of the greater ones and the trickster (coyote) verses the viscous ones (raccoon).

ZuniThey used the Pleiades as an agricultural calendar. Among the Zuni, the Pleiades were known as the “Seed Stars.” When the Pleiades disappeared on the western horizon during spring, it was time for planting seeds as the danger of frost had pass. The Zuni also knew to finish all of their planting and harvesting before the Pleiades returned on the eastern horizon with the return of colder autumn weather and frost.

The story of a missing Pleiad also appears in other cultures such as African, Asian, Australian, European, Hindu, Indonesian, Jewish, Mongolian and Native American mythology. The star Celaeno is currently the dimmest star. However the star, Asterope is actually two stars, both of which are dimmer than Celaeno. There does seem to be a basis for this part of the legends as astronomical evidence clearly points to a once visible star within the Pleiades cluster that has since become extinct by the end of second millennium B.C.E.

pleiadi-nebra_scheibeThe Nebra sky disk is a bronze disk of around 30 cm diameter, patinated blue-green and inlaid with gold symbols. These are the Generally interpreted as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, and stars (including a cluster interpreted as the Pleiades). Two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, were added later. A final location addition was another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes of uncertain meaning, as the Milky Way or as a Rainbow.

The disk is attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, and dated to c. 1600 bce. It has been associated with the Bronze Age cultures of Unetice and the disk is unlike any known artistic style from the period. According to an analysis of trace elements by x-ray fluorescence by E. Pernicka, the copper originated at the Mitterberg in Austria, while the gold is from the Carpathian Mountains.

Sources: Fountain in Belgium, etching from the mid 1600s called the three fountain maidens linked to the alchemy of mercury; Painting of the Pleiades (The Pleiades) by Elihu Vedder, 1885 Се Плейоны Плеяды (The Pleiades) Илайхью Веддер, 1885 год; List of Symbolism from; The Heavens Seemed to be on Fire- Kay Nielsen;






Ukraine’s Night on Bare Mountain

On the eve of May 1, in the Walpurgis Night, Kiev witches gathered for the Sabbath on Bald Mountain
May 1st is Walpurgis Night in Kiev as witches gather for their Sabbath on Bald Mountain.

Lysa Hora was the Legend of darkness of the rising powers of men, both pagan and christian, both politician and military at Bare (Bald) Mountain in Kyiv, Ukraine. People tend to think one is good and the other evil, but when you look at the destruction of white, red, black, yellow and brown indigenous cultures, its all the same. I wrote a poem once, that said: “Christians have the blood of Pagans on their hands and Pagans have the blood of Shamans on theirs – and we all have the blood of woman on our hands and now she has the blood of Mother Earth on hers…

The Ukraine Witches were no different in their losses of their goddess culture and their persecution like everywhere else on earth.  P. Efimenko is one of the most famous Ukrainian ethnographers who said: “Belief in witches is so common in Ukraine that in every single village, you can find one or two witches. This case is no exception even in large university cities like Kyiv and Kharkiv.” In Ukraine, they believe that “scientists” are responsible for taking their knowledge of the old witches and the proverb says: “Witch in the house, better be damn ready.”

Some witches can harm a person, but its something the witches prefer to “work out” or “settle” issues, but “scientists” not only do evil but they are unconscious of it because unlike spiritual people, or withes, shamans, magicians, they do not undergo the difficult spiritual tests and the shaman’s tests of nature. They are also not associated with icons, prayers, reading the “opposite” or “upside down” and reverse of all things presented. Most Slavic spiritual people including myself always include doing and the reverse doing (chaos), for some witches, the bind and the unbind, which covers the patterns of karmic, reincarnation or aspects of the wrath of nature within oppositions of life. Science and the Military, including their children, Corporations, cannot understand these principles when they mess with the forces of mountains, water, nature and women.

This protects us from our own karma by doing double the work, healing our own karma and working our spiritual life out, a walking forward and a walking in reserve (of the ancestral self). Otherwise karma will return at a later time in ones life or another future lives with much more impact and severity. Doing both clockwise (work) and counter-clockwise (self work) helps increase awareness of what is internally happening equally with the external happenings of our life, other people or situations – and its generally not focused on when one is learning the path but when they begin to actually walk the path.

Ukraine Witch

Ukrainian Witches, Shamans, Sorcerers and Magicians are no different in this type of work, they do it to recognize and see when a shadowy & evil shamans, witches, sorcerers or magicians are creating near them or in their circles. Bald mountain, according to tradition, is said to be the gathering place of Chernabog (shadow god) and his followers on Walpurgis or All Hallows Eve night, similar to Halloween. Under his spell, they dance furiously until the coming of dawn. The Slavic creation myth talks about the Yusha Snake created by Svarog, the god of celestial fire, which holds the Mother Earth inside the World Egg and above the depths of the eternal ocean by coiling around it and biting its own tail. The place where the snake’s teeth and tail meet is located at the mount Lysa Hora  – the Barren Mountain, or Bald Mountain – in Kiev. But Bird and Serpent has always been a woman’s medicine, totem and soul long before Paganism and this is where Paganism was destructive like Christianity.bm3

Until now, Lysa Hora remains as it always used to be – completely devoid of any signs of civilization. The place doesn’t even have light posts, which are present anywhere in a city. The biggest action at the mount usually happens in the month of May. Groups of pagans, satanists, and the ones who deem themselves to be warlocks gather at Lysa Hora to celebrate the pagan holiday Grudie Rosnoe, the days when Volhvs – the Sorcerers would bring sacrifices to the god Rod.  Naturally, the local police is not very fond of these gatherings, since a third  of all suicides takes place precisely during these dates. Not so long ago, tolkienists and LARP enthusiasts took a liking to the place as well, in fact, all who have strong karmic past lives, will be attracted to this place.

According to the legend, the Sabbath on the mount were plentiful with witches and ghosts of deceased women partaking in shadow work and orgies with demonic men. As usual, the shadow of those in power in Ukraine, were and still are sitting on the throne, and if a witch, male or female did not do enough evil throughout the year, the top ranking shadows of people would abuse her or him.

The folklore divides Lysa Hora into three areas.

The first is called Rusalka (Mermaid) Ravine, since it is located by the Lake that was once sacred in Paganism where Mermaids used to live in peace.

The second is the Ravine of the Witches, where the Sabbaths took place after the Dionysus Cults of darkness intervened and brought their shadows from the Middle East, Russia and Greece.

The third and the biggest part of the Mountain is called the Dead Men Grove, where many ancient burial grounds were discovered.

Prior to the introduction of Christianity, Kievan Rus was a Pagan religion, and Lysa Hora was the place of worship for the followers but once alcohol of the Dionysus cults began the shadow, evil and darkness swallowed them up along with the other civilizations. Pagan priests and priestesses as a last effort, carved out dungeons in the mountain, where they stored books, sacred artifacts, and gold.  After paganism was officially banned over a long period of time, the priests moved into those dungeons, in hopes to create a new gospel, which would combine the old Slavic and Christian beliefs together, to accommodate the confusion of people during this change.

Their gospel was passed down by word of mouth, and is reflected in many Slavic myths and fairy tales of the patriarchal male Pagans, which turned into a men’s religion just like Christianity was.  The church regarded this gospel as a non-canonical Apocrypha work. Even now, stone plates with apocryphic inscriptions are still being discovered around the place. The second half of Paganism in Slavic culture was not connected to the Goddess, like it was in the first half of paganism. Over the centuries, the apocrypha writers left the dungeons and sealed the underground passages. After them, the Christian monks started visiting the mount to perform penance and prayer, and to build their own underground monastery, which connected Lysa Hora with Kiev Pechersk Lavra.

The Pagans were having a few chaos things happen, women were being burned as witches, men were try to control women with rituals of dark sexual magic and alcohol being introduced into ceremony and Christianity was trying to convert and convince men to join their God because their women would have to go along. Chaos is what was occurring and great change. Christianity had fell upon an already failing and darkened system. Lysa Hora has had enough tunnels dug into it more was to come, and during the times of Peter the Great who ruled from 1689-1725, it was decided to build a defensive military Fort for the city on top of the mount.  The Lysogorskaya fortress was a very clever construction with the underground reservoirs to store water from the river Dnieper, more underground passages and dungeons. In the case of defeat, the fortress would be flooded with the help of the reservoirs. Besides that, the reservoirs were also the place to drown the disobeying peasants – about 3000 human remains were found there.

Lysa Hora Tunnels

In the first half of the 19th century, the area around Lysa Hora was populated by monks, who peacefully cultivated fruit, vegetables, and engaged in bee-keeping. In 1897 the fortress on top of the mount became a warehouse, where issues of power again by men would surface, the gun-cotton industry, was a highly flammable explosive, and it was stored there – the locals had no clue that they could blow up any minute. Everything exploded in 1918, destroying a big area of the Pechersk region. That’s when the military moved their ammunition and it was sealed once again.

In the beginning of the 20th century, the fortress served as another dis-functional and negative organization… a prison and the area around it as the execution grounds. More than 200 criminals were executed on the mount. In the Soviet times it was fashionable for the local officials to invite foreign government representatives to the mount, in order to woo them with the fact that any wish they thought of would come true. And of course, they would.  A notable case happened when the China and Tibet conflict was at its peak, and Dalai Lama sent a number of Buddhist monks to the Mountain to wish for the end of war. On the third day of their praying, the leader of China, Deng Xiaoping, died. During the German occupation, the mount used to be the Tiger tanks base, and some researchers often came across the German military reports, describing paranormal phenomena.

All of this profanity from the late Pagan eras, then the Religion/Military eras, then the Government eras and lastly the Military/Government eras has totally destroyed all sacredness of this area. Today, Lysa Hora has a real underground city in its depths, which consists of caves from several historical periods – from the cells of the Slavonic to abandoned military bases. Besides the treasures and books deep in the mountain, all kinds of things are believed to be inside of it of the cave cultures, which are passages to other worlds, supernatural energies, skeletons of ancient adventurers and now totally controlled by the military (ufos) who crossed the veil in the 1930s and dominate this place.

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The corrupt social groups like the Military and huge religions and eastern religions including paganism have used sacred places to further their own agendas, rulership,  power and control for good or greed. All of the sacred places like Lyra have been darkened because of Pyramid societies and we are ending our final process of these eras. There are no doubts that all kinds of terrible things happened at Lysa Hora – during the excavations, archaeologists found a pit with burned books, skeletons of chickens, plaques with inscriptions and human remains. The adepts of paranormal military studies believe that there is a passage to the astral (dream) worlds through the mountain, and like all great mountains and volcanoes like Shasta, Fuji and Maui, once sacred are now demonic because of the US, Soviet and Saudi advanced shifting technologies to break the veils.

Legend says anything be it evil or good, can manifest there at any time at Lysa and bewildered people with the rising shadow occult phenomena over the past 300 years try to stay grounded.  Moreover, since Lysa Hora used to be a place of blasphemy, godly and pagan godly corruption and desecration, this emanates the energy of negative ancestral energies  for all who decides to take a stroll there after sunset.

Video: Night on Bald Mountain (Russian: Ночь на лысой горе, Noch’ na lysoy gore), also known as Night on the Bare Mountain is a series of compositions by Modest Mussorgsky (1839–1881). Inspired by Russian literary works and legend, Mussorgsky composed a “musical picture”, St. John’s Eve on Bald Mountain (Russian: Иванова ночь на лысой горе, Ivanova noch’ na lysoy gore) on the theme of a Witches’ Sabbath occurring on Kupala *Summer Solstice rites, which he completed on that very night, June 23, in 1867. Together with Nikolay Risky-Korsakov’s Sadko (1867), it is one of the first tone poems by a Russian composer